Syrian military launches airstrikes on eastern Aleppo; resident: “We expect extermination”


The Syrian military launched a devastating aerial bombardment Friday ahead of an announced offensive against Aleppo, Syria’s largest city, signaling that the U.S.-Russia brokered ceasefire now lies in tatters. “Residents and activists say the bombing…has been unprecedented, targeting residential areas, infrastructure and civil defense centers,” the Associated Press reported. At least 27 people were killed in the strikes, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, although Ammar al-Selmo, the head of Syrian Civil Defense (also known as the “White Helmets”) in eastern Aleppo, said that more than 70 people had been killed. The Guardian reported that more than 91 were killed throughout Aleppo province, including 15 members of a single family. “What’s happening now is annihilation in every sense of the word,” al-Selmo told Reuters. Three of the White Helmets’ four centers in Aleppo were targeted in the airstrikes, with two being put out of commission; ambulances and a fire engine were also damaged. The organization was unable to continue its rescue operations in eastern Aleppo.

The Syrian military announced Thursday that it was launching an offensive to capture eastern Aleppo, which is held by rebels, and said the bombardment could last for hours or days, to be followed by a ground incursion. Abdulkafi al-Hamdo, a teacher in eastern Aleppo, said, “This means welcome to hell…We expect extermination.” Abu Yousef, another resident of rebel-held Aleppo, said he saw preparations for the ground invasion, and that the pro-government forces were largely made up of Shiite militias, most of whose fighters are from Iraq: “[The Shiite militias] do the fighting, the Iranians give the orders and the Syrian army follows…[T]he bombing today was crazy. Rubble is bouncing around. They are dropping every type of bomb they have. They are getting ready to invade.”

Nearly 500,000 people have died in the Syrian civil war, the majority killed by the Assad regime, which has perpetrated the indiscriminate murder of civilians through the use of barrel bombsmassacres, intentional starvation, and chemical weapon attacks. The Assad regime also has intentionally targeted schools and medical facilities. Assad has been fully backed in his onslaught against Syrian civilians by Iran and its terror proxy Hezbollah.


At the United Nations, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu convened a summit with at least 15 leaders and representatives of African countries on Thursday. According to the Prime Minister’s Office readout, Netanyahu “told his interlocutors that he believes that Israel could be an amazing partner for their countries. He said that technology changes everything, including in communications, medicine, agriculture and education. He noted that Israel wants to share its technology with African countries.” Later the prime minister and his wife, Sara, attended an event with dozens of African leaders titled “Israeli Technology and Innovation for Africa” held at UN headquarters. Netanyahu, Sara, and Israel’s Ambassador to the UN Danny Danon were welcomed with a standing ovation and the blowing of a shofar.

Netanyahu visited Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, and Ethiopia earlier this summer. Weeks later, the Republic of Guinea, a Muslim-majority African nation, restored diplomatic ties with Israel after a 49-year break. Netanyahu has made it a priority to strengthen Israel’s commercial, diplomatic, and security relations with African countries. Israel has a long history of sharing its expertise with African countries. Jerusalem hopes that increased ties with African nations will lead to a shift in their voting trends at the UN and other global fora, thus improving Israel’s diplomatic standing and reversing what Netanyahu called “the automatic majority against Israel.”


Swastikas were found in two freshman residence halls at San Jose State University (SJSU) on Tuesday night. One of the swastikas was “accompanied by undeniably hateful, anti-Semitic language,” according to SJSU President Mary Papazian, who says she is saddened and outraged by the incidents, but denied their classification as hate crimes. Neither appears to be connected and two students have already issued confessions.

SJSU was the first California State University to pass a student government resolution to divest from Israeli companies as part of the Boycott, Divestment, Sanctions (BDS) movement. Greater BDS activity—especially involving faculty members—has been linked to greater anti-Semitic activity on college campuses.

SJSU recently wrestled with another hate crime investigation: the bullying of African-American student Donald Williams, Jr. The young freshman was harassed by his three roommates who forced his head into a U-shaped bike lock, locked him inside his room and closet, and taunted him with the Confederate flag and nicknames such as “three-fifths.” None of the students were found guilty of committing hate crimes at a trial held in February of this year.


Team Israel defeated Brazil 1-0 on Friday to advance to the final of the World Baseball Classic Qualifier in Brooklyn, with first baseman Nate Freiman scoring in the fourth inning on a Cody Decker sacrifice fly. Winning pitcher Corey Baker allowed one hit in five innings pitched, and Brad Goldberg of the Charlotte Knights, the Chicago White Sox’s AAA affiliate, picked up his second save of the tournament. The team will play the winner of the Great Britain-Pakistan game in the final on Sunday. The winner of Sunday’s game will travel to South Korea to play in the 16-team classic next March.

Israel scored four runs in the bottom of the seventh inning in a come-from-behind win over Great Britain in the first round of the qualifier on Thursday.

“You have 28 guys who are really proud to be Jewish, raising awareness for Israel baseball and Jewish people,” Israeli reliever Josh Zeid, who struck out six in 3 2/3 innings, said after the game. “You guys saw the crowd today. If we win, it will build support for baseball in Israel.”

The Israeli team is made up mostly of Jewish minor leaguers and former major leaguers. Israelis on the team include Dodger farmhand Dean Kremer, the first Israeli to be drafted by a major league team.

Netanyahu: Abbas should come to the Knesset, would “gladly” address Palestinian parliament


Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu invited Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas to address the Knesset and said he would “gladly” speak to the Palestinian parliament in Ramallah in his speech Thursday at the United Nations General Assembly. He addressed Abbas, who spoke at the same podium earlier, “You have a choice to make. You can continue to stoke hatred, as you did today. Or you can confront hatred and work with me to establish peace between our two nations.” Netanyahu affirmed that he is “committed to a vision of peace based on two states for two peoples” and that “Israel is ready to negotiate all final status issues.”

Confronting Abbas’ strategy of working around bilateral negotiations and preferring unilateral measures at the UN and other international fora, Netanyahu said that “the road to peace is through Jerusalem and Ramallah, not New York.” He praised Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi for his suggestion that Egypt serve a mediating role in talks between the Israelis and the Palestinians. He continued, “Israel welcomes the spirit of the Arab peace initiative and welcomes a dialogue with Arab states to advance a broader peace. I believe that for that broader peace to be fully achieved the Palestinians have to be part of it. I’m ready to begin negotiations to achieve this today – not tomorrow, not next week, today.”

On the other hand, earlier in the day, Abbas continued with his unilateral, international strategy and requested an international conference that would create a “mechanism and defined timeframe for an end to the occupation” and excoriated “the notorious Balfour Declaration,” for which he demanded an apology from Great Britain in addition to its need to bear “its historic, legal, political, material and moral responsibilities for the consequences of the Declaration.” Abbas also accused Israel, falsely, of committing “aggressions and provocations against our Christian and Muslim holy sites, especially Al-Aqsa Mosque.” If Israel continued in this vein, he warned, it would be “playing with fire.”


Eleanor Sharpston, one of ten advisors to the European Union’s Court of Justice, believes that Hamas is not a terror group—and is advising the EU to follow suit. She asked the high court to take Hamas off the EU’s terror list on Thursday.

“The Council cannot rely on facts and evidence found in press articles and information from the internet, rather than in decisions of competent authorities,” according to an official summary of Advocate General Sharpston’s remarks. Her argument is reminiscent of a decision made in 2014 by the second-highest EU court to strike Hamas from its terror list: the basis for the listing comes from unreliable sources.

The United States declared Hamas to be a foreign terrorist organization in 1997. Making the list includes partaking in “violent acts or acts dangerous to human life” and affecting “the conduct of a government by mass destruction, assassination, or kidnapping”—criteria Hamas easily meets. Hamas has “fired thousands of rockets deliberately or indiscriminately at civilian areas” resulting in multiple deaths of Israeli civilians. Hamas has claimed responsibility for dozens of terror attacks over the years, perhaps most notoriously  a suicide bombing at a hotel during a Passover Seder in 2002 that killed 30 people. Its leaders regularly applaud operations that kill innocent civilians; attackers are frequently lauded as “martyrs”.


Iran is working tirelessly to expand its influence in the Arab world, from the Persian Gulf to the Red and Mediterranean Seas, former Lebanese Prime Minister Saad Hariri wrote in the pages of The New York Times on Thursday. Hezbollah, Iran’s terrorist proxy in Lebanon, has been successful in creating a “devastating gridlock on the country’s government in order to blackmail the citizenry into accepting its demands.” Just this week, a senior Hezbollah official acknowledged that the group has been blocking the appointment of a new Lebanese president (Lebanon has lacked a president since 2014). Hezbollah has also sent its fighters to Syria to fight alongside the “odious regime” of Bashar al-Assad, who “with the help of Iran; its Revolutionary Guards and its proxies; Hezbollah and militias and Iraq and Afghanistan – has created the worst refugee problem since World War II, ruthlessly displacing millions of people into neighboring countries and Europe.”

Hariri reminded the world of Hezbollah’s (and by extension, Iran’s) terrorist attacks against Americans, specifying the 1983 bombing of the Marine barracks in Beirut, which killed 241 people. Indeed, Hezbollah is responsible for killing more Americans than any terrorist group other than Al Qaeda. The former prime minister also expressed dire concern about Iran’s support for the Houthi rebellion in Yemen and Shiite militias in Iraq, some of which have committed atrocities against Sunni civilians and were responsible for the killing hundreds of U.S. troops.

Because of Lebanon’s long experience of dealing with Hezbollah, the Lebanese people are all too aware that “Iran wants to expand its influence in the Middle East by sowing discord, promoting terrorism and sectarian hatred, and destabilizing the region through proxies, while pretending to be bystanders.” Iran has begun to openly proclaim its involvement in the Syrian civil war, where it has backed Bashar al-Assad to the hilt in his onslaught against the Syrian people. During the Syrian civil war, the Assad regime has carried out the indiscriminate murder of civilians through the use of barrel bombsmassacres, intentional and systematic starvation, and chemical weapon attacks. The Assad regime has also purposefully targeted schools and medical facilities.

Saad Hariri’s father Rafik was assassinated in Beirut in 2005 while serving as Lebanon’s prime minister. Four Hezbollah members, who remain at large, were indicted for carrying out the attack. A UN investigator found senior Syrian officials to have been implicated in the assassination; massive demonstrations by Lebanese citizens led to the withdrawal of Syrian troops from Lebanon, which Syria had militarily occupied for nearly 30 years.


Israelis and Australians have decided to commemorate their friendship in an exciting new festival: Ozraeli. The event – which lasts for a week – celebrates the strong bonds between the two nations with fun activities ranging from an Australian gala event in Jaffa to an Australian-Israeli soccer game in Tel Aviv.

Currently around 12,000 Israelis visit Australia each year, compared to 35,000 Aussies who visit Israel. Ynet reports that a new direct flight between Tel Aviv and Sydney may be underway to further the connection.

Obama and Netanyahu meet in New York, affirm “unbreakable” bond between U.S. and Israel


President Barack Obama and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu met, for likely the final time during Obama’s tenure, in New York City on Wednesday on the sidelines of the United Nations General Assembly. Netanyahu gave his thanks to Obama for the recent $38 billion memorandum of understanding between their two countries. The prime minister told Obama that Israel “will never give up” on seeking peace and told the president, “Your voice, your influential voice, will be heard for many decades, and I know you’ll continue to support Israel’s right to defend itself and its right to thrive as a Jewish state.”

Obama called the bond between the U.S. and Israel “unbreakable” and continued, “It is based on common values, family ties, a recognition that a Jewish state of Israel is one of our most important allies and a guiding principle throughout my presidency. One that I’ve expressed often to the prime minister is that it is important for America’s national security to ensure that we have a safe and secure Israel, one that can defend itself.”

President Obama also emphasized the need for a “secure” Israel to exist “alongside a Palestinian state.” There has been concern that the White House would support a United Nations Security Council resolution laying down parameters for a final status agreement between the Israelis and the Palestinians. In an attempt to preempt this, 88 out of 100 senators, representing both the Democratic and Republican parties, signed a letter on Tuesday urging President Obama to oppose “one-sided” UNSC resolutions on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Key signatories included stalwart progressive Senator Elizabeth Warren and vice presidential candidate Tim Kaine.

After the public remarks, the two men retired to have a discussion in private. Netanyahu is scheduled to address the General Assembly on Thursday.


A mentally disturbed Turkish man brandishing a 12-inch knife attempted to stab a security guard at the Israeli Embassy in Ankara on Wednesday. The attacker – 41-year-old Osman Nuri Caliskan – sheathed his weapon inside a newspaper and shouted: “I will change the Middle East!” and “Allahu akbar!” as he charged towards officers in front of the embassy.

Turkish police repeatedly called for him to drop his weapon and fired a warning round. Caliskan, undeterred, continued to storm the embassy—prompting a Turkish police officer to shoot him in the leg. He was injured and then taken to a nearby hospital for treatment. All staff in the Israeli embassy were safe and Israeli officials thanked Turkish police for their “professional performance.”

Turkey and Israel signed a deal in June to restore diplomatic ties after a six-year rift. They are set to exchange ambassadors soon and Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has already met and shaken hands with an Israeli diplomat—the first meeting of its kind in two years. When the Turkish government faced usurpation in July, Israel was among the first countries to stand by Erdogan and condemn the attempted military coup.


In yet another show of anti-Western saber-rattling, the Iranian regime put some of its newest weapons on display in a parade Wednesday through the streets of Tehran and threatened to destroy Israeli cities, Reuters reported. The parade showed off long-range missiles, tanks, and the Russian-supplied S-300 missile defense system, which Iran has deployed around Fordow, an underground nuclear complex outside of Qom. A banner on a truck carrying a Zolfaqar ballistic missile read, “If the leaders of the Zionist regime make a mistake then the Islamic Republic will turn Tel Aviv and Haifa to dust.” At a ballistic missile test in March, Iran launched a ballistic missile with a range of about 870 miles that had the phrase “Israel must be wiped from the face of the earth” inscribed on it in Hebrew. Iran also displayed the Qadr-H ballistic missile, which has a range of 2000 kilometers.

At the Gulf port of Bandar Abbas, Iran’s navy showed off 500 ships in addition to submarines and helicopters. Iran has increased its aggressiveness in the Persian Gulf since the implementation of the nuclear deal in January: there have been 31 incidents between Iranian and U.S. ships in that time period that were deemed “unsafe”, “unprofessional,” or both, which is the same amount for all of 2015. “We’ve seen an uptick in confrontations by Iranian vessels in the Arabian Gulf,” Gen. Joseph Votel, the head of U.S. Central Command, said earlier this month. “Ultimately if they continue to test us we’re going to respond and we’re going to protect ourselves and our partners.” Also this month, the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps’ navy launched a new ship and draped a banner over it reading, “America should go to the Bay of Pigs, the Persian Gulf is our house.”


Facebook – which has a history of serving as a platform for anti-Israel incitement – is beginning to realize its role in enabling terrorist incitement and is enhancing cooperation with Israel, according to Israeli Justice Minister Ayelet Shaked and Public Security Minister Gilad Erdan. “Cooperation today is much better than it was in the past,” Shaked told Army radio on Monday. “The penny dropped for them as well that terror, incitement to terror, which is done on social media must be fought.”

The Israel Project’s own research associate Amanda Botfeld broke the story earlier this year in The Wall Street Journal that Facebook was letting anti-Israel and anti-Jewish hate speech go unchecked—and holding anti-Palestinian rhetoric to greater scrutiny. Pages with “Death to all the Arabs” violated Facebook’s community guidelines yet “Death to all the Jews” inexplicably did not. Since that time, Israel and the social media giant have been working together to make changes—Shaked said that over the past four months Facebook granted around 95 percent of requests to remove incendiary content.

Democratic and Republican senators join together in bipartisan letter calling for the veto of one-sided UN resolutions


Eight-eight out of 100 senators signed a bipartisan letter on Tuesday urging President Obama to oppose “one-sided” United Nations resolutions on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Key signatories included stalwart progressive Senator Elizabeth Warren and vice presidential candidate Tim Kaine.

“Even well-intentioned initiatives at the United Nations (UN) risk locking the [Israeli and Palestinian] parties into positions that make it more difficult to return to the negotiating table and make the compromises necessary for peace,” the letter argues, setting the groundwork for the UN General Assembly meeting in New York this week. It also quotes the President directly in his September 2011 address to the UN General Assembly: “Peace will not come through statements and resolutions at the United Nations… Ultimately it is the Israelis and the Palestinians – not us – who must reach agreement on the issues that divide them.”

Former Israeli Foreign Minister and co-leader of the left-wing Zionist Union party Tzipi Livini – a fervent supporter of two-state peace negotiations – has likewise repudiated the ability of the United Nations to midwife a Palestinian state. “I believe the goal is to achieve peace and to end the conflict, and I don’t think that September is going to help in achieving peace,” she told Newsweek in anticipation of another UN General Assembly meeting. “At the end of the day, the United Nations is not going to establish a state. It’s going to make a declaration.”


Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas praised a Jordanian who was shot while attempting to stab Israeli Border Police officers as a “martyr” in a condolence letter to his family this week. The attacker, Saeed Amro, approached the police officers with a knife at the Damascus Gate in Jerusalem’s Old City and was fatally shot. In the letter, Abbas called Amro “a martyr who watered the pure earth of Palestine with his blood” and hoped that “God would wrap the martyr in his mercy, and that he will dwell in paradise.” There have been nine terrorist attacks against Israelis since last Friday. An Abbas spokesman called the killing in self-defense of Palestinian attackers “a crime and an execution” in a statement.
The Palestinian Authority has consistently incited violence and refused to condemn acts of violence against Israeli civilians. Abbas refused to condemn the shootings, knifings, and car-rammings in a terror wave that targeted Israeli civilians for several months. A senior adviser to Abbas stated this past June, “Wherever you find an Israeli, slit his throat.” The PA refused to condemn the shooting attack on Israelis that occurred in Tel Aviv’s Sarona Market in June, which killed four Israelis and wounded 16 others, choosing instead to issue a generically-worded statement with no mention of the terror in Tel Aviv. Fatah released a statement justifying the attack, claiming that Israel was “reaping the repercussions of choosing violence against the Palestinian people.” When a Palestinian terrorist went on a stabbing spree in Jaffa that killed American army veteran Taylor Force, PA’s official TV news station called the terrorist responsible a “martyr” and on Twitter, Abbas’s Fatah Party hailed him as a “martyr” and a “hero.” Last February, Abbas met with families of terrorists who carried out attacks against Israelis, telling them: “Your sons are martyrs.”


The United Nations was forced to halt humanitarian convoys into Syria following the deliberate targeting of aid trucks, a warehouse, and an aid clinic by either Syrian or Russian jets on Monday night. The strikes destroyed 18 out of the 31 trucks that made up the joint UN-Syrian Arab Red Crescent convoy and killed at least 12 humanitarian aid workers in the town of Urem al-Kubra in western Aleppo province. The convoy was delivering aid for 78,000 civilians. UN aid chief Stephen O’Brien said that if the convoy had indeed been purposely targeted, it would be a war crime, because “[n]otification of the convoy…had been provided to all parties of the conflict and the convoy was clearly marked as humanitarian.” UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned the “sickening, savage and apparently deliberate attack” on the convoy and denounced the depravities of the regime of Bashar al-Assad, which “continues to barrel bomb neighborhoods and systematically torture thousands of detainees.”
The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights announced that at least 40 Syrians had been killed in Aleppo City in air strikes on Monday night into Tuesday. The Syrian military declared the ceasefire, brokered by the United States and Russia, to be over on Monday and immediately proceeded to attack Aleppo with airstrikes and barrel bombs. During the five year-long civil war that has killed around 400,000 people and displaced millions, the Assad regime has committed war crimes including the indiscriminate murder of civilians through the use of barrel bombsmassacres, intentional starvation, and chemical weapons attacks. The Assad regime and its Russian backers have been denounced for intentionally targeting schools and medical facilities. Assad has been fully backed in his onslaught against Syrian civilians by Iran and its terror proxy Hezbollah.


A Facebook page with over 20,000 supporters has given new voice to the growing number of Israeli Arabs loyal to Israel. Example posts include photos of Israeli Arabs proudly holding up Israeli flags and serving their country in uniform. Posts are written in English, Arabic, and Hebrew, and often garner hundreds of “likes”.

“We want to unite Arabs who love the country and who are Zionist, but who feel like they do not have a welcome place in their communities,” said Michal Julian, 37, an Orthodox Jewish resident of Jerusalem who co-founded the page with Abdallah Abdel Rahman, 27, from Abu Ghosh.

Trends show that Israeli Arabs are increasingly assimilating into Israeli society—most recently in education. Between 2013 and 2016, the number of Israeli Arab teachers in Israel’s state schools rose by 40 percent. The result is largely the product of a government-sponsored initiative to integrate more Israeli Arab teachers into public schools. Likewise, the number of Israeli Arabs attending universities is trending upwards, and 14.4 percent of Israel’s bachelor degree students were Arab in 2015—an extremely high success rate considering the country’s population is around 20 percent Arab.

Netanyahu to meet with President Barack Obama in New York this week


In a reaffirmation of the strength of U.S.-Israel ties, President Barack Obama is scheduled to meet with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu on Wednesday.

“The meeting between the president and prime minister will afford them an opportunity to discuss the stalwart ties between the United States and Israel, as recently underscored by the finalization of our new 10-year Memorandum of Understanding with Israel, the single largest pledge of military assistance in U.S. history,” according to a White House statement.

White House Press Secretary Josh Earnest also stressed the meeting as an opportunity to discuss the Israeli-Palestinian peace process—negotiations for which Netanyahu has recently reiterated his support. “This is something I have said hundreds of times and I say it again here,” Netanyahu said while visiting the Netherlands earlier this month. “I am not choosy about the location — if it is here in Holland or Moscow, that is no problem…If [Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud] Abbas wants to meet without preconditions for direct talks I [am] ready at any time. I have been calling on him to do that for seven years already and if he agrees there will be a meeting.”

Netanyahu had already repeated his commitment this year to meeting Abbas for peace talks when the French government proposed itself as a possible intermediary, prompting Netanyahu to say he would meet Abbas “in Paris or wherever.” But the Palestinian leadership has consistently rejected such offers to speak directly, instead preferring to litigate the issue in international bodies.


A Hamas militant issued a thinly-veiled threat against Americans after the State Department officially designated a Hamas leader as being an international terrorist, The Jerusalem Post reported on Sunday.

The State Department’s designated Fathi Hammad as an international terrorist on Friday, saying that he used his position as a former interior minister “to coordinate terrorist cells.” In response, a Hamas faction released a threatening video on social media. “We warn American citizens against entering Gaza because they are unwelcome after the decision [against Hammad] was made,” Abu Jamal of the al-Nasser Saladin Brigade said.

Other elements within Hamas attempted to soften the threat. Iyad al-Bazm, a spokesman for Hamas’s Interior Ministry, wrote on Facebook that “threats published by someone who belongs to one of the resistance factions are unacceptable and illegal,” and that Hamas was committed to protecting “all foreign citizens residing and visiting the Gaza Strip.”

In 2008, Hammad acknowledged that Hamas used human shields, saying with regards to Israel that Hamas “[desires] death like you desire life.”

Avi Issacharoff reported in The Times of Israel earlier this month that Hamas was spending $100 million on building up its military infrastructure. Forty percent of that is believed to be spent on paying 1,500 diggers and others to build its terror tunnel network. He also reported that Hamas was working with the Sinai-based affiliate of the Islamic State to smuggle the materials it needs for its terror infrastructure. (via

Israeli wines and the innovative vintners responsible for raising the profile of the country’s products internationally are explored in the cover story and additional features in the October 15, 2016 issue of Wine Spectator, which hit newsstands on September 13. Kim Marcus, managing editor of the venerable American publication, traveled to Israel to see the wine scene for himself, talk to the older and newer generations of winemakers and – above all else – taste the contents of bottles that are consistently winning accolades and prizes. “Fine wine production is now part of a rich cultural tapestry as a generation of modern-minded winemakers explore[s] what is possible in their arid land,” he writes in the intro to his cover story, “Israel’s Transformation.” “Following a boom beginning in the early 2000s, driven by Israelis’ search for quality from their native land and by a dawning appreciation for its wines in both Europe and America, the wine industry in the Jewish state is transforming at a rapid rate.” (via Israel21c)