IDF releases declassified map showing Hezbollah military infrastructure embedded in civilian areas


The Israel Defense Forces shared a declassified map of Hezbollah’s military infrastructure, located in residential areas in southern Lebanon, on its Facebook page Tuesday. The map shows hundreds of military emplacements, including weapons depots, rocket launchers, and terror tunnels, that Hezbollah has constructed in preparation for its next war against Israel. Hezbollah’s deliberate positioning of military infrastructure in Lebanese villages, a tactic that the IDF has called a “war crime,” is consistent with the Iran-backed terror organization’s history of exploiting civilians to launch wars against Israel.

It was reported in 2013 that Hezbollah was paying poor Shi’ite families in southern Lebanon to allow them to store weapons in their homes, effectively making them human shields. An Israeli defense official told The New York Times in May 2015 that Hezbollah’s buildup in southern Lebanese villages meant that “civilians are living in a military compound….We will hit Hezbollah hard, while making every effort to limit civilian casualties as much as we can…[but] we do not intend to stand by helplessly in the face of rocket attacks.” A few days later, a newspaper linked to Hezbollah confirmed the Israeli assessment.

Noting the threat posed by Hezbollah’s extensive rocket arsenal and its placement among civilians, Geoff Corn, an international military law expert, concluded earlier this year that the resulting devastation from a war with these conditions would “both legally and morally…lie solely at the feet of Hezbollah.”


The Israel Defense Forces carried out an exercise on Israel’s southern border with Gaza on Tuesday, to prepare for a possible incursion by Hamas forces in a future war. The defensive drill included a mock Hamas attack using motorcycles, which were found in cross-border attack tunnels by the IDF during Operation Protective Edge in 2014 and were meant to be used in operations to kidnap Israelis. According to an IDF official, “The exercise is meant to improve the Gaza Division’s preparedness to switch from its day-to-day activities to emergency, as well as to improve the connection and partnership with the other forces working with us.” The eleven-hour exercise took place in Israeli kibbutzim situated along the border with Gaza and included hundreds of army soldiers, as well as local government officials, police officers, and air force and navy personnel.

The drill was part of regularly scheduled training, and not in response to any specific incident or threats in the south, according to the military. It came days after sources in Gaza said that Hamas held its own exercises, which included firing rockets towards the Mediterranean Sea in what appeared to be preparation for a future conflict with Israel.

Hamas spends an estimated $40 million of its $100 million military budget on building tunnels into Israel that can be used in future terrorist attacks. In July, an Israeli official estimated that Hamas digs some six miles of tunnels every month.


Following the passage of a similar bill last week in the Senate, a bipartisan slate of leading members of the House of Representatives introduced a bill that would expand how the Department of Education defines anti-Semitism – including standards that address anti-Israel rhetoric. The measure expands previous guidelines to outline anti-Semitism; one of the proposals is adherence to a definition first published by the State Department in 2010.

Demonizing Israel, applying a double-standard to Israel, and delegitimizing Israel all constitute anti-Semitism as stipulated by the State Department. Famed Israeli politician and former prisoner of the Soviet Gulag Natan Sharansky advanced the definition.

Lobbying efforts were led by the Anti-Defamation League, who said the bill “addresses a core concern of Jewish and pro-Israel students and parents: When does the expression of anti-Semitism, anti-Israel sentiment and anti-Zionist beliefs cross the line from First Amendment-protected free expression to unlawful discriminatory conduct?”


An Israeli bone-graft product made of enhanced coral has received CE approval to start sales in Europe for dental and orthopedic procedures. This unique product is made from corals grown in a closed system using patented technology to provide bioactivity and eliminate biological contamination. Many practitioners and medical device companies have already contacted CoreBone to learn more about its advantages over currently available products for bone grafting, says CEO Ohad Schwartz. “Bone grafts ideally should have four features,” he explains. “They must be bioactive, not just a passive scaffold, in order to attract new bone cells; they must be strong enough to support the site, especially for implants; they must allow for being replaced as new bone grows; and they must be porous to enable vascularity,” meaning that blood vessels can grow through them naturally and produce growth of bone from the inside out. “If you have all those features, you have a very good bone graft,” Schwartz continues. “We have all of those.” (via Israel21c)

Four Palestinians killed in collapse of tunnel straddling Egypt-Gaza border


Four Palestinians were killed in a collapsed underground tunnel connecting the Gaza Strip and Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula, Gazan officials reported on Sunday. The officials claimed that the collapse was due to flooding of the tunnel by the Egyptian military. While Egypt has not confirmed this report, the Egyptian military has demolished and flooded underground tunnels along the Gaza border to prevent the terrorist group Hamas from smuggling weapons into the Gaza Strip. The incident is the latest in a series of tunnel collapses that have killed and injured Palestinian militants.  

A Hamas operative who was captured in June after illegally crossing into Israel revealed that the terrorist group’s fighters can travel underground throughout the entirety of Gaza. According to the Jerusalem Post, “Hamas is said to be digging 10 kilometers of tunnels toward Israel each month.” Brig. Gen. (res.) Yossi Kuperwasser, formerly the head of the research division of Israeli military intelligence and later the director general of the Ministry of Strategic Affairs, told reporters in May that the discovery of the tunnels was a sign that Hamas was preparing for another war against Israel.

Regional analysts have said that Israeli-Egyptian relations are at their “highest level in history”: there has been significant security cooperation due to mutual concerns, such as the extensive coordination between Hamas and Sinai Province, an ISIS affiliate active in the Sinai Peninsula. Hamas finances ISIS operations, trains its fighters in planting deadly IEDs and firing anti-tank missiles, and smuggles weaponry across the border from the Gaza Strip into Sinai.

Egypt and Israel have also upped formal diplomatic ties, with Egyptian Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry visiting Jerusalem in July to offer his government’s assistance in restarting peace talks between Israelis and Palestinians. A month later, Shoukry defended Israeli policies to a group of high school students in Cairo.

Egypt has similarly agreed to cooperate with Israel on pragmatic issues such as desalinization and recycling, and introduced a ninth-grade textbook this spring that casts Israeli-Egyptian peace in a more positive light than previous editions. The textbook asks students to memorize the terms of the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty of 1979 and explain the “advantages of peace for Egypt and the Arab states.”


Documents containing previously-unpublished details of the nuclear deal with Iran could be released after Donald Trump is inaugurated as president next month, The Daily Beast reported Monday. The documents, which the Obama administration has refused to release publicly, are stored in special rooms in the Capitol complex called Sensitive Compartmentalized Information Facilities (SCIFs) that are normally used for storing top-secret information. However, the Iran documents are not officially designated as classified, and therefore could be released by the Trump administration relatively easily. 

The documents include projections of how Iran’s nuclear program is expected to progress under the terms of the deal, communications about the deal between Secretary of State John Kerry and other foreign ministers, and exemptions given to Iran by the commission that was created to oversee the deal’s implementation. Also included are a set of documents signed by State Department official Brett McGurk that outline the terms of the U.S. Treasury Department’s release of $1.7 billion to Iran in exchange for four American hostages.

Despite the fact that the documents are not classified, “a confidential clearance was required to see the McGurk documents and a secret classification was required to view the joint commission documents in the Congressional SCIFs,” The Daily Beast’s Tim Mak wrote. Sen. Robert Menendez (D-N.J.), a leading Democratic critic of the deal, told Mak that the documents “ought to be released.”

Numerous aspects of the nuclear deal with Iran have been surrounded by secrecy, a point highlighted last week by Sen. Gary Peters (D-Mich.), who called on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to provide more details of Iran’s nuclear program so that Iran’s compliance with the deal could be confirmed. Peters’s concerns about the IAEA’s lack of details echoed statements made in recent weeks by former IAEA deputy director-general Olli Heinonen.


Hailing a “new phase” in bilateral ties, Israel’s new ambassador to Turkey on Monday handed his letter of credence to Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, moving forward on the countries’ reconciliation. Eitan Na’eh is Israel’s first ambassador in Ankara in half a decade. Before he was greeted by Erdoğan in the Presidential Palace for a short ceremony, a military band played Israel’s national anthem, Hatikva

“I am very happy to be back in Turkey as ambassador. We have a lot of work to do,”Na’eh told reporters at the airport. “I want to thank Turkey for the support, the aid it sent Israel fighting fires last week. We have a history of helping each other.” Turkey was among several nations that sent planes and other equipment to help Israel extinguish over 1,000 wildfires which burned more than 500 homes and 32,000 acres of forests and national parks.


Turkish-Israeli ties had been strained since the 2010 Mavi Marmara incident, when a flotilla under the control of the Turkish Humanitarian Relief Foundation—a group designated as a terror organization by the Netherlands and Germany—attempted to break Israel’s blockade of the Gaza Strip. IDF troops faced an “organized and violent” assault from a group of passengers after boarding the ship, according to a UN report. Ten crew members were killed in the ensuing fight, and several Israeli soldiers were injured.


After the reconciliation agreement was reached, Israeli leaders noted the significant economic potential of closer ties. “Trade between Israel and Turkey has more than doubled from the Marmara event up until today,” said Maj. Gen. (ret.) Yaakov Amidror, adding that the deal will bolster that growth with “joint projects in government level. People are speaking about gas and there are other issues that might emerge.”



Twelve people who work in the Iranian fashion industry were sentenced to up to six years in prison for “spreading prostitution,” the BBC reported Monday. 

The twelve were convicted of spreading prostitution and promoting corruption by publishing images online that were considered obscene. They also were charged with causing Muslims to corrupt themselves by producing fashion shows and promoting a “Western-style culture of nudity.”


A lawyer involved in the case said that his clients were also banned from working in fashion or traveling abroad for two years. Some were also banned from photography or journalism.

Iranian authorities have been cracking down on “un-Islamic” behavior recently, especially by models and others who work in the fashion industry. In May, authorities arrested eight models who posted pictures of themselves on Instagram without head coverings. In July, police prevented a fashion show at the opening of a Levi’s store at a Tehran mall.


The crackdown has extended to people who work in other sectors. Over 30 Iranian students were given lashes earlier this year for dancing at a co-ed graduation party in the city of Qazvin. And a Tehran soccer player was arrested in June and suspended from playing soccer for six months for wearing SpongeBob SquarePants-themed pants. 


In October 2015, two Iranian poets were sentenced to jail and 99 lashes each for shaking hands with members of the opposite sex, and reports surfaced the following month that Iranian actress Sadaf Taherian was forced to flee the country after she posted pictures of herself with her hair uncovered on social media.

American-Iranian dual national, wife detained by IRGC, held without charge in Evin Prison


An American-Iranian dual national and his wife were arrested by Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps in July, and have been detained ever since without charge and without access to lawyers in Tehran’s Evin Prison. Karan Vafadari and his wife Afarin Niasari, before their arrest and detention, ran an art gallery in Tehran. Hadi Ghaemi, the executive director of the International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran (ICHRI), said, “Yet another case of a dual national snatched and held without charge or access to a lawyer represents an alarming continuation of a judicial system run by intelligence agencies with no respect for the law and no accountability.”

According to the ICHRI, Vafadari belongs to the Baha’i faith. In October, representatives of the Baha’i religion accused Iranian President Hassan Rouhani’s government of “ongoing efforts to destroy the Baha’i community.” Since Rouhani took power in 2013, more than 151 Baha’i have been arrested and 388 acts of economic discrimination — including threats, intimidation and the closing of Baha’i-owned businesses — have been documented against members of the faith, according to the report. Thousands of Baha’i have also been denied entry into universities, while 28 have been expelled on the basis of their religion, which has been outlawed by the Islamic Republic.

Iran has a history of arresting dual nationals, which it does not recognize, meaning that the individuals cannot receive consular assistance; according to Reuters, as of July, the imprisoned dual nationals comprised “the highest number of Iranians with dual-nationality detained at one time in recent years to have been acknowledged.” Many analysts believe that Iran is “seeking concessions from the West in exchange for releasing” dual nationals, the Associated Press wrote in August.


George Mitchell, the former Democratic Senate Majority Leader who served as President Obama’s Special Envoy for Middle East Peace, said in an interview Thursday that he disagreed with President Jimmy Carter’s New York Times op-ed published earlier this week, which suggested that Obama impose terms of an Israeli-Palestinian peace accord through the United Nations Security Council.

Although Mitchell praised Carter’s efforts to broker a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt, he told NewsMax TV’s Steve Malzberg that “on this issue I don’t agree with President Carter.” Mitchell explained that for the United States to take sides and “unilaterally decide” acceptable outcomes of key issues, or to recognize a Palestinian state, “would be a reversal of what had been American policy for several years.”

The argument is made that, well, 137 countries have done so, which is true—something which ought to and does concern Israel. But the United States is not one of 138 countries; the United States is the world’s dominant power, [and] will play a decisive role in whatever happens in that region. And so I think we should continue the policy that we had and try to encourage the parties to negotiate the two-state solution, at which time, if successful, there will be not just a nominal Palestinian state, but a real Palestinian state.

Aaron David Miller, who also served as an American peace negotiator, wrote in an analysis for earlier this week that choosing to follow Carter’s advice would “leave Obama’s legacy in tatters.”


So far Israel has arrested 23 arsonists connected to igniting the hundreds of fires that raged across Israel last week, and they are positioned to receive financial rewards, Palestinian Media Watch President Itamar Marcus wrote in the Jerusalem Post Wednesday. The fires have burned more than 500 homes and 32,000 acres of forests and national parks.

Palestinian law stipulates anyone imprisoned for “resisting the occupation” receives a high monthly salary. A recent research paper produced by the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs asserted these payments constitute a violation of the Oslo Accords.

The United Kingdom froze roughly $30 million in aid to the Palestinian Authority (PA) in October over concerns that taxpayer money is being used to pay the salaries of Palestinian terrorists. The frozen funds amount to around one-third of the UK’s yearly aid to the PA.

Critics have long called for greater transparency in distribution of foreign aid payment to Palestinians, the largest per capita recipients of international development aid in the world. A Global Humanitarian Assistance report cited in The Wall Street Journal found that Palestinians received $793 million in international aid in 2013, amounting to $176 for each Palestinian. That same year, Syrians were given $106 in development assistance per capita, while eight of the remaining top ten recipients — Sudan, South Sudan, Jordan, Lebanon, Somalia, Ethiopia, Afghanistan, and the Democratic Republic of Congo — received an average of $15.30 per capita. Foreign aid amounted to about a quarter of the PA’s entire budget in 2012.


Israel “Izzy” Papa decided to make helping others his vocation when he was in high school. The 22-year-old paramedic with Magen David Adom (MDA) started volunteering at Israel’s national emergency medical service and disaster-relief organization as a teen “because it was cool.” “I saw some people in really awful situations and I realized that someone needs to help. I felt like I need to do it. That’s what I want to do; help people,” he tells ISRAEL21c. “It’s also so satisfying. When you save someone and he gets to live another day, that is a crazy feeling. The best feeling I’ve ever had in my life.” Papa hit the headlines in Israel recently after becoming the first paramedic, and the first Israeli, to join the Red Cross and the Migrant Offshore Aid Station (MOAS) vessel in the Mediterranean Sea. (via Israel21c)

U.S. Senate votes 99-0 to extend Iran Sanctions Act


The U.S. Senate voted 99-0 to extend the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA) for another 10 years on Thursday, two weeks after the House voted 419-1 for the measure and putting the bill before President Barack Obama. The ISA, which is set to expire at the end of the year, aims to prevent foreign investment in Iran’s energy sector. Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.) said, “Given Iran’s continued pattern of aggression and the country’s persistent efforts to expand its sphere of influence across the region, preserving these sanctions is critical.” Sen. Richard Blumenthal (D-Conn.), who supported the Iran nuclear deal, explained his support for the extension of the sanctions legislation: “The practical effect is the Iran nuclear agreement depends on our resolve, on our commitment to…stop a nuclear armed Iran by using sanctions and other means if necessary.”

Iran’s Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, warned last week, “If these sanctions are extended, it will surely constitute a violation of the [nuclear deal] and [the U.S.] should know that the Islamic Republic will definitely react to it.” Democratic Senators responded forcefully to the Iranian threat. “Iran is making this up. These problems don’t exist,” Sen. Ben Cardin (D-Md.), the top Democrat on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, told The Weekly Standard. “Congress, by extending ISA, is not taking any new steps against Iran at all.” Sen. Robert Menendez (D-N.J.) told the magazine, “The Iranians need to know that there are consequences for their actions. Hopefully, they will change their course of actions. In the absence of that, the United States should not ultimately let them be the veto over what we decide is the appropriate foreign policy.”

Cardin and Menendez both opposed the nuclear deal. But a supporter of the deal, Sen. Chris Coons (D-Del.), also rejected Iran’s charges. “I am convinced that Congress is well within its rights to extend the Iran Sanctions Act,” he said. “Iran has always resisted non-nuclear sanctions and tried to tie them into the nuclear deal. That’s not correct…I think it’s completely appropriate that we continue the sanctions architecture.”


Two Arab Israeli timber suppliers have offered to donate wood paneling to a synagogue that suffered extensive damage in last week’s brush fires, The Times of Israel reported.

The wood will be supplied free of charge and without labor costs.“I had tears in my eyes when I heard what was happening,” said the congregation’s rabbi, Dov Hiyon. “It was so emotional to hear that Muslims were asking to donate to a Jewish synagogue. I’ve invited them to evening prayers to personally thank them.”

“Jews and Arabs live together in Haifa, and there is no discrimination,” said Walid Abu-Ahmed, one of the wood suppliers. “We must continue with this co-existence and promote peace.”

Trends show that Arab Israelis are increasingly assimilating into Israeli society—most recently in education. Between 2013 and 2016, the number of Arab Israeli teachers in Israel’s state schools rose by 40 percent. The result is largely the product of a government-sponsored initiative to integrate more Arab Israeli teachers into public schools. Likewise, the number of Arab Israelis attending universities is trending upwards, and 14.4 percent of Israel’s bachelor degree students were Arab in 2015—an extremely high success rate considering the country’s population is around 20 percent Arab.


Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas gave a three-hour long address Wednesday to the Fatah congress, which is meeting this week in Ramallah.

Although Abbas praised the Oslo Accords, a series of peace agreements with Israel in the 1990s, as an “important step” for the Palestinian people, he warned that he “will not recognize a Jewish state,” a key demand by Israeli leaders.

Abbas told members of his Fatah faction that recognition of Israel “will not last forever” if Israel does not recognize a Palestinian state.

He told the 1,400 delegates that 2017 will be the “year of the Palestinian state and end of the Israeli occupation” and predicted that the next Fatah congress will be held in “East Jerusalem, the eternal capital of Palestine.”

He encouraged Palestinians to use “popular peaceful resistance in all of its spheres” and hailed the influence of the PA at the United Nations, where it is recognized as a non-member observer state.


Two Iranians were charged by a Kenyan court Thursday with collecting information for a terrorist attack, whose target was the Israeli embassy in Nairobi. According to the charge sheet, the two men, Sayed Nasrollah Ebrahim and Abdolhosein Gholi Safaee, were traveling in an Iranian diplomatic vehicle and “were found taking video clips of the Israeli embassy…for the use in the commission of a terrorist act.” They were arrested on Tuesday shortly after visiting two members of Iran’s Qods Force in a Nairobi prison, where they are serving 15-year sentences after being convicted in 2013 for planning terrorist attacks against Western targets.Two other Iranians, Abubakar Sadiq Gouw and Yassin Sambai Juma, confessed that they were members of the Qods Force and were plotting, along with Iranian intelligence, to attack Western targets in Kenya.

Iranian agents have been accused of planning multiple attacks on Israeli and American targets worldwide in recent years, including in Azerbaijan and Thailand.

Ebrahim and Safaee’s use of an official car is not the first time Iran has leveraged diplomatic cover to hide its destabilizing behavior. The U.S. State Department’s counterterrorism coordinator testified to Congress in 1994, shortly after Iranians with diplomatic IDs were accused of planning the bombing of the AMIA Jewish Community Center in Argentina, that Iranian embassies are often overstaffed with personnel, with many of them possibly intelligence agents or terrorist operatives.

Veteran Middle East peace negotiator strikes back at Jimmy Carter op-ed


Former President Jimmy Carter claimed that America “must” recognize Palestine in the pages of The New York Times Monday, a proposition to which veteran Middle East peace negotiator Aaron David Miller is firmly opposed.

“Having spent the better part of my adult professional life working to promote, facilitate and consummate negotiations between Arabs and Israelis,” Miller wrote in a counter op-ed on Wednesday, “my advice is precisely the opposite of Mr. Carter’s.” True peace, he argues, can only come from negotiations between the two parties themselves, not from external measures.

Miller warns that unilateral action (such as recognition of statehood) might make matters worse. “It could unlock a host of unpredictable – and mostly negative – consequences,” he writes.

Such a move also undercuts the spirit of negotiation championed so firmly by former President Carter in brokering Egyptian-Israeli peace. It was Carter’s sensitivity to both sides that produced a successful treaty, Miller asserts. One-sided efforts are doomed to polarize the Israelis and Palestinians further, as it would be rewarding Palestinians by recognizing their stated aim – an independent state – before the holding of negotiations and without meeting Israeli security needs, and strip Palestinians of the need to be flexible and willing to make compromises.


Eleven high-ranking diplomats from seven African countries toured Jerusalem’s Old City on Monday, in what is the latest indication that diplomatic ties between Israel and African countries are improving. The diplomats’ tour was sponsored by Federation of Israeli Chambers of Commerce in an effort to promote Israeli-African business ties.Diplomats typically don’t visit the Old City because most countries don’t recognize Israel’s sovereignty there. But in a break with that protocol, the ambassadors of Ethiopia and Zambia, as well as other diplomats from Cameroon, Ghana, Angola, South Sudan, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, participated in the tour and met with Israeli officials there. “We had a very interesting visit this morning,” Ethiopian ambassador to Israel Helawi Yossef said. “It was very enlightening for us.”

Tomer Heyvi of the Federation of Israeli Chambers of Commerce said that the goal of the tour was to unite parties who could enhance business ties between Israel and African nations. He explained that trade between and Africa is poised to expand. “In 2015 trade with African countries made up only only three percent of Israel’s international trade, and we believe that the potential is far greater and still not materialized,” he told the Times of Israel.

The Palestinian Authority objected to the tour. “The Israeli-organized visit of senior diplomats from seven African countries aims at normalizing the illegal Israeli annexation of occupied East Jerusalem, in particular when it comes to legitimizing projects led by settlers that continue to harm the daily lives of thousands of Palestinians in occupied East Jerusalem,” Palestine Liberation Organization secretary-general Saeb Erekat told the Times.

This has been a year of diplomatic breakthroughs for Israel, especially with African nations. Netanyahu embarked on a historic tour of East Africa in July, restored diplomatic ties with the Muslim-majority nation of Guinea, met with 15 African heads of state and ambassadors at the United Nations General Assembly in September, and announced plans to attend a summit of the Economic Community of West African States in the near future.


Families in rebel-held eastern Aleppo are nearly out of food, The Washington Post reported Tuesday. “We’re only eating two small meals a day now, and it’s just rice and cracked wheat,” said Moataz Khattab, 26, who lives with nine family members. “We eat together, what we can, but we are losing so much weight. We’re running out of supplies, and now we talk about starving to death.” Another feared the fate of a local neighborhood boy: “He has become a skeleton.”

Forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad captured about 40% of the territory in eastern Aleppo that had been held by rebels on Monday. Planes dropped ominous leaflets: “If you don’t leave these areas quickly you will be annihilated. Save yourselves. You know that everyone has left you alone to face your  doom and have offered you no help.”

For the past four months, Assad’s forces have blockaded more than 200,000 people in eastern Aleppo, nearly half of them children, according to U.N. officials. Thousands are fleeing for their lives.


The U.S. House of Representatives unanimously passed two bipartisan bills on Tuesday that call for increased cybersecurity cooperation with Israel. The measures – the United States-Israel Advanced Research Partnership Act of 2016 and the United States-Israel Cybersecurity Cooperation Enhancement Act of 2016 – were sponsored by Reps. John Ratcliffe (R-Texas) and Jim Langevin (D-R.I.) and now await a vote by the Senate. “Israel is a vital strategic partner, and I’m pleased to be working closely with Rep. Langevin to preserve and strengthen this important bond through joint cybersecurity efforts,” Ratcliffe said. Langevin added, “My trip to Israel…reinforced my belief that our countries have much to learn from one another when it comes to cybersecurity…Our legislation will further strengthen the U.S.-Israel relationship and drive innovative, collaborative thinking about homeland security priorities.”

The U.S. and Israel, as strategic allies, have a history of cooperating in matters of cybersecurity. This past June, the U.S. and Israel came to an agreement under which the two countries’ cyber defense intelligence will be shared automatically. In April, speaking at an energy conference in Tel Aviv, U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz emphasized the importance of U.S.-Israeli cooperation in cyber defense, because “a very large fraction of cyber attacks involves the energy sector and that’s a recent experience.” Moniz also said that the U.S. would be able to learn from Israel’s “forward-leaning approach” in cybersecurity. The director of the National Security Agency, Admiral Michael Rogers, reportedly visited Israel in March to discuss cooperation in cyber defense, particularly with regard to Iranian and Hezbollah infiltration attempts. Rogers, who is also the head of the U.S. Army’s Cyber Command, was the guest of the commander of the IDF’s Intelligence Corps Unit 8200, an elite unit responsible for signals intelligence and cyber warfare. The report on Rogers’ secret visit came just days after the Department of Justice revealed that Iran had launched a cyberattack on the controls of a dam 25 miles north of New York City.